Lesson One: “Justice and Righteousness”—משפט וצדקה: Restricted Access

This is lesson one of Justice and Righteousness. The concept of social justice was expressed in Ancient Israel and in the Ancient Near East by means of a hendiadys. The most common word-pair to serve this function in the Bible is משפט וצדקה, “justice and righteousness”, or צדקה ומשפט, “righteousness and justice”. However, alongside this expression, we find צדק ומישור or צדק ומישרים, “righteousness and equity”, word-pairs which are found in poetic passages, and therefore appear primarily in parallelism (see Isa. 11:4, 33:15, 45:19; Ps. 9:9, 58:2, 98:9, and compare Prov. 1:3, 2:9). The word-pair צדק//משר is found in the list of gods from

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